Mesh networking

Mesh networks are a decentralized, flexible and robust. Compared to Star networks any node serves as smart network broker providing the following advantages:

  • Self-organizing and reorganizing in case of adding or losing nodes;
  • Bypassing obstacles due to many combinations of routes;
  • Complicated bearing and interception by lowering signal power.

 

Mesh networks

 

Our solution is implemented as an add-on and integrated into the MACS real time operating system.

The main features are:

  • Low power consumption of transceivers.
  • Lightweight and simple network protocols.
  • Ability to integrate protocols above the network layer.


The architecture implements 3 levels of the OSI model:

 

The architecture implements 3 levels of the OSI model



Add-on successfully passed tests on devices based on ARM Cortex-M4 performing:

  • Over-the-Air firmware update
  • Wireless communication via Wi-Fi
  • Touch screen user interface

 

 

Solution development faced 2 groups of challenges: arbitrage and routing.

  • 01Arbitrage Challenge
    Mesh nodes use a set algorithms and rules to get access to the air - arbitration. It is crucial for self-organizing or changing the structure of the network.

    Problems to solve:

    Useful signal detection

    • Useful signal detection.
      To streamline the nodes interaction, it is necessary that every node, which is ready for data transmission, to be able to detect the presence of other useful signals on the air even in encrypted channels.
     



    Hidden node

    • Hidden node.
      Two nodes that don’t see each other directly on the air can start a data transfer. Data superimposition results in that third node can’t detect the useful sign al and starts transmitting as well. Thus, all three nodes begin simultaneous transmission.
     

    Unprotected node

    • Unprotected node.
      Entire network segments can be blocked by trans mitting nodes. This happens when one of the nodes starts transmitting to one isolated segment of the network and does not allow the neighbor node to start transmitting to another segment.
     

    How do we meet the Arbitrage Challenge?

    • Simplified DCF
    • Development of alternative methods



    Mesh networks

  • 02Routing Challenge
    Routing is choosing the way how package is transferred between two nodes. It also does not have a clear solution. There are two known methods:
     
    • Reactive routing.
      A node receives a package that is not addressed to it, so the node immediately redirects it back to the air. Sooner or later the packet will find the addressee. Obviously, this method is not good because almost the entire network is used to send one package.
    • Static routing.
      Each node that assumes the role of coordinator knows the whole network structure. Transmission of this information and its permanent update overloads the network.

    Routing Challenge
     

    How do we meet the Routing Challenge?

    • Proactive (traffic analysis, periodic service messages)
    • On demand (building a path via a special request)


Our mesh algorithms were successfully tested running computer simulation based on specially created mathematical model.

 

Our mesh algorithms

 

Our mesh algorithms

Get In Touch

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    194044, St. Petersburg, Russia
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